Breeding For Ornamentals: Classical and Molecular Approaches

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Although production of scent volatile compounds appears to be very widespread in the plant kingdom, the information about their biosynthesis and regulation is limited and based to date on the analysis of a single model system - Clarkia.

Bee-pollinated Antirrhinum majus snapdragon will be used as a model system for this study due to its important advantages over the Clarkia system such as a well developed genetic map, transposon gene cloning system, available transformation protocol, and rhythmic emission. Floral scent is often a complex mixture of low molecular weight compounds, which are mainly distributed within three groups: fatty acid derivatives, benzenoids and isoprenoids. Esters of such compounds are among the most common in many plant species where they contribute significantly to the total floral scent output.

However, the biochemical pathways, enzymes and genes controlling the biosynthesis of volatile esters in plants have received little attention.

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The focus of the proposed research is on the molecular mechanisms of the synthesis of the volatile ester methylbenzoate, an important insect attractant and a major component of snapdragon floral scent. This research specifically addresses the questions of how plants regulate the production of volatile esters and how pollination and circadian rhythm affect scent emission at the molecular level.

The availability of a cloned S-adenosyl-L-methionine:benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase BAMT , the final enzyme in the biosynthesis of methylbenzoate, recently isolated in the PI's lab, provides a unique opportunity to make a detailed study of the regulation of floral scent production.

The mode of expression of BAMT gene will be characterized in different tissues during flower development to determine the molecular mechanisms transcriptional, translational or post-translational involved in the regulation of methylbenzoate emission. Special attention will be paid to comparative analyses of Antirrhinum varieties that emit methylbenzoate with non-emitting plants. To determine the specific molecular and biochemical mechanisms that are responsible for the postpollination changes in floral scent production in plants, the levels of BAMT mRNA, BAMT protein, BAMT activity, emission, and the possible accumulation of methylbenzoate inside the cells will be determined at different times after pollination.

Overall, this research will lead to significant contributions to understanding of the fundamental processes underlying the formation of floral scent.

Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding statistical methods

While this proposal is designed primarily to address fundamental questions about molecular mechanisms controlling production of volatiles in plants, the results obtained may ultimately find application in agriculture and horticulture. An understanding of the enzymology and regulation of metabolic pathways including developmental changes and subcellular compartmentation , obtained in these studies, will provide the knowledge for engineering plants with improved scent quality to increase the attraction of pollinators to flowers and thereby increase the yield of important agricultural crops.

Dudareva N, Piechulla, B. Boatright J, Dudareva N.. RNA gel blot analysis to determine gene expression of floral scents.

Breeding For Ornamentals: Classical and Molecular Approaches

Jackson, H. Linskens, R. Dudareva N.. Lisa M.


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Plant breeding

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